CFP last date
20 May 2024
Reseach Article

Impact of Black Hole and Sink Hole Attacks on Routing Protocols for WSN

by Padmalaya Nayak, V.bhavani, B.lavanya
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 116 - Number 4
Year of Publication: 2015
Authors: Padmalaya Nayak, V.bhavani, B.lavanya

Padmalaya Nayak, V.bhavani, B.lavanya . Impact of Black Hole and Sink Hole Attacks on Routing Protocols for WSN. International Journal of Computer Applications. 116, 4 ( April 2015), 42-46. DOI=10.5120/20327-2495

@article{ 10.5120/20327-2495,
author = { Padmalaya Nayak, V.bhavani, B.lavanya },
title = { Impact of Black Hole and Sink Hole Attacks on Routing Protocols for WSN },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { April 2015 },
volume = { 116 },
number = { 4 },
month = { April },
year = { 2015 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 42-46 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/20327-2495 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-06T22:56:10.110861+05:30
%A Padmalaya Nayak
%A V.bhavani
%A B.lavanya
%T Impact of Black Hole and Sink Hole Attacks on Routing Protocols for WSN
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 116
%N 4
%P 42-46
%D 2015
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

With the drastic growth of Internet and VLSI design, applications of WSNs are increasing tremendously that ranges from environmental monitoring, habitat monitoring, traffic surveillance to battle fields. In WSN a number of tiny sensor nodes managed by small batteries are deployed in a hostile environment to monitor the physical parameters. During transmission, the sensor nodes consume considerable amount of energy. There are many constraints on these sensor nodes such as limited memory, limited battery power, and limited processing capability. Moreover, these factors impose a restricted lifetime for the entire network. When sensor nodes send the information to the base station (BS), routing protocol plays the key role to deliver the information at the destination. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) and LEACH-C is the well-known distributed and centralized clustering routing protocol respectively. In LEACH, the cluster head (CH) is elected on a probabilistic threshold value on a rotation basis and only CHs are allowed to send the information to the BS. LEACH-C is the modified version of LEACH and works on the centralized principle. Further, WSNs are vulnerable to many types of attacks, as WSNs are normally deployed in a harsh environment. So, security is one of the major challenging issues that need to be focused. Many researchers have addressed these issues on LEACH protocol as LEACH is the first ever cluster based routing protocol. As far as our knowledge is concerned, there is a lack of research in the current literature by considering both LEACH and LEACH-C protocol under some attacks. So, we have made an attempt to analyze the performance of both the protocols under some well-known attacks like black hole and sink hole attacks. Again, we plan to propose a detection mechanism which is in progress.

  1. W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy- Efficient communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proceedings of the 33th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2000.
  2. W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan,"An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks," in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Oct. 2002, pp. 660 – 670.
  3. C. Karlof and D. Wagner, "Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures," Special Issue on Sensor Network Applications and Protocols, vol. 1, no. 2-3, pp. 1293–1303, 2003.
  4. Comparing the Impact of Black Hole and Gray Hole Attack on LEACH in WSN by Meenakshi Tripathi,M. S. Gaur,V. Laxmi Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India 2013 published by Elsevier B. V.
  5. J. Luo, M. Fan, D. Ye, "Black hole attack prevention based on authentication mechanism," 11th IEEE Singapore International Conference on Communication Systems, 2008. ICCS 2008. pp. 173-177,Guangzhou, 19-21 Nov. 2008.
  6. Gagandeep, Aashim , "Study of sinkhole attacks in wireless Ad hoc networks", International journal on computer science and engineering, vol. 4, June 2011.
  7. A Review of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network Prabhat Kumar, M. P. Singh and U. S. Triar National Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar, India International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 4, June - 2012 ISSN: 2278-0181.
  8. S. K. Singh, M. P. Singh, and D. K. Singh, "A survey of Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal of Advanced Networking and Application (IJANA), Sept. –Oct. 2010, vol. 02, issue 02, pp. 570–580.
  9. A. S. K. Pathan, H. W. Lee, C. S. Hong, "Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges", Communications, IEEE Transaction, Feb 2006.
  10. G. Padmavathi, D. Shanmugapriya, "A Survey of Attacks, Security Mechanisms and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, vol. 4, 2009.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


LEACH LEACH-C Black hole Sink hole NetSim Simulator